The Royal Library of Alexandria, or Ancient Library of Alexandria, in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world. It was dedicated to the Muses, the nine goddesses of the arts. It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty and functioned as a major center of scholarship from its construction in the 3rd century BC until the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. With collections of works, lecture halls, meeting rooms, and gardens, the library was part of a larger research institution called the Musaeum of Alexandria, where many of the most famous thinkers of the ancient world studied.
The library was created by Ptolemy I Soter, who was a Macedonian general and the successor of Alexander the Great. As a symbol of the wealth and power of Egypt, it employed many scribes to steal books from around the known world, copy them, and never returned them. Most of the books were kept as papyrus scrolls, and though it is unknown how many such scrolls were housed at any given time, their combined value was incalculable.
The Tudors Henry Tudor had little hereditical claim to the throne of England but in defeating Richard III in battle won the crown anyway to become Henry VII in 1485 The Tudor dynasty, a period which is usually taken to have marked end of the Middle Ages and the start of the Modern Era, lasted until the death of Elizabeth I in 1603